Main Debates

  • Are carrier sanctions permitted under the letter of the 1951 Geneva Convention?
  • Should non-state parties be responsible for pre-screening asylum seekers?

Main Point

  • Carrier sanctions as a deflection mechanism

EU Documents

  1. Council Directive 2001/51/EC supplementing the provisions of Article 26 of the Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement OJ L187, 10 July 2001.
  2. Council Directive 2004/82/EC on the obligation of carriers to communicate passenger data OJ L261, 6 August 2004.
  3. Council Directive 2003/110/EC on assistance in cases of transit for the purposes of removal by air OJ L 321, 6 December 2003.



  1. E. Basaran, ‘Evaluation of the Carriers Liability Regime as a Part of the EU Asylum Policy under Public International law’, Uluslararasi Hukuk ve Politika, vol. 4, no. 15 (2008), pp. 149–163.
  2. F. Nicholson, ‘Implementation of the Immigration (Carriers’ Liability) Act 1987: Privatising Immigration Functions at the Expense of International Obligations?’, International Comparative Law Quarterly, vol. 46 (1997), pp. 586–634.


  1. V. Guiraudon, ‘Before the EU Border: Remote Control of the “Huddled Masses”’, in K. Groenendijk, E. Guild and P. Minderhoud (eds), In Search of Europe’s Borders (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2003), pp. 191–214.
  2. A. Cruz, Shifting Responsibility: Carriers’ Liability in the Member States of the European Union and North America (Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books Limited, 1995).
  3. P. Minderhoud & S. Scholten, ‘Regulating Immigration Control: Carrier Sanctions in the Netherlands’, European Journal on Migration and Law, vol. 2 (2008), pp. 123–147.