National Legislation

  1. Protection of Human Rights Act, India, 1993
  2. Act No. 39 of 1983, Illegal Migrants (Determination by Tribunals) Act, 1983
  3. Passport Act, India, 1967
  4. Ministry of Foreign Affairs Notification. Foreigner’s Order, 1948. Order under the Foreigner's Act 1946
  5. Foreigner’s Act, India 1946
  6. Registration of Foreigner’s Act, India, 1939
  7. The Passport (Entry into India) Act, India, 1920
  8. Indian Penal Code, 1860. Act No. 45 of 1860

Case Law

  1. The Sarbananda Sonowal v. Union of India (2005) 5 Supreme Court Cases 665 (Aliens; Aggression; Illegal Migrants; Powers of State).
  2. Anand Swaroop Verma v. Union of India (2002) (VI AD (DELHI) 1025 CRL. No. 746/2002 8.8.2002).
  3. National Human Rights Commission v. State of Arunachal Pradesh and Another, 1996, SCC (1) 742 (Right to Life and Liberty) Article 21 of the Constitution of India.
  4. The State of Arunachal Pradesh v. Khudiram Chakmas, 1994, Supp. (1) SCC 615 (Citizenship of Chakma Refugees).
  5. Dr. Malvika Karlekar v. Union of India (Criminal Writ Petition No. 583 of 1992) (Right of asylum seekers to approach UNHCR).
  6. Saifullah Bajwa v. Union of India (Delhi HC – Pakistani Mehdis) - W.P.(CRL) 1470/2008.(Access to UNHCR procedures).
  7. State v. Ranjeet Singh (Delhi sessions court)- Sessions Case Number: 61 of 2013. Unique Case ID Number:02401R0224952011 - 28.10.2013. (Rape of a refugee woman, conviction of Indian national and compensation ordered).
  8. Namgyal Dolkar v. MEA (Delhi High Court)-22 December 2010 -W.P.(C) 12179. (Citizenship of Tibetans born in India).
  9. Tenzin Cheophag Ling Rinpoche v. Union of India (Karnataka High Court) - 7 August 2013 - No. 15437/2013.(Citizenship of Tibetans born in India).



  1. S. Baruah, ‘Citizens and Denizens: Ethnicity, Homelands and the Crisis of Displacement in Northeast India’, Journal of Refugee Studies, vol. 16, no. 1 (2003), pp. 44–67.
  2. P. Oberoi, Exile and Belonging: Refugees and State Policy in South Asia, (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2006), pp. 77–103.
  3. P. Saxena, ‘Creating Legal Space for Refugees in India: the Milestones Crossed and the Roadmap for the Future’, International Journal of Refugee Law, vol. 19 (2007), pp. 246–272.


  1. R. Trakroo, A. Bhat and S. Nandi (eds), Refugees and the Law (New Delhi: Human Rights Law Network, 2011), pp. 67–76.
  2. B.S. Chimni, International Refugee Law: A Reader, (New Delhi: Sage, 2000), Chapter VIII.
  3. R. Dhawan, Refugee Law and Policy in India, (New Delhi: PILSARC, 2004), pp. 32–80, 43–59.
  4. R. Kharat, Tibetan Refugees in India, (New Delhi: Kaveri Books, 2003), pp. 46–71, pp. 84–94.
  5. Model Law, drafted by the Eminent Persons Group (EPG), South Asia and PILSARC, and others.
  6. E. Rolfe, ‘Refugee, Minority, Citizen, Threat: Tibetans and the Indian Refugee Script’, South Asia Research, vol. 28, no. 3 (2008), pp. 253–283.
  7. D. K. Singh, Stateless in South Asia: The Chakmas between Bangladesh and India, (New Delhi: Sage Publications, 2010), pp. 180–182, 194–95, 197–200.