Main Debate

Is the right to seek and enjoy asylum under the Universal Declaration a binding norm under customary international law?

Main Point

The legal and political significance of the Universal Declaration

Soft Law

  1. United Nations, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, UN General Assembly Resolution, A/RES/217 A (III), 10 December 1948), Arts 13, 14.



  1. A. Edwards, ‘Human Rights, Refugees, and the Right to “Enjoy Asylum”’, International Journal of Refugee Law, vol. 17, no. 2 (2005), pp. 293–330.


  1. M. Kjaerum, ‘Art. 14’, in G. Alfredson and A. Eide (eds), The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. A Common Standard of Achievement (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1999), pp. 279–296.
  2. U. Brandl, ‘Soft Law as a Source of International and European Refugee Law’, in J.Y. Carlier and D. Vanheule (eds), Europe and Refugees – A Challenge? (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1997), pp. 203–226.
  3. A. Edwards, ‘International Refugee Law’, in D. Moeckli, S. Shah and S. Sivakumaran (eds), International Human Rights Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), pp. 512-526.

 II.3.3.1 Universal Declaration of Human RightsII.3.3.1 Universal Declaration of Human Rights