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Main Debates

  • Is the implementation of the 2002 Canada-USA “Safe Third Country” agreement leading to the violation of protection obligations by either country?


  1. Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the United States of America for cooperation in the examination of refugee status claims from nationals of third countries, signed on 5 December 2002, as part of the Smart Border Action Plan, and entered into force on 29 December 2004.



  1. A. Macklin, The Values of the Canada-US Safe Third Country Agreement (Ottawa: Caledon Institute of Social Policy, 2003).


  1. D. Anker and Harvard Law Student Advocates for Human Rights, Bordering on Failure: the US-Canada Safe Third Country Fifteen Months after Implementation, The International Human Rights Clinic, Human Rights Program, March 2006.

 IV.5 The North American Regional MaterialsIV.5 The North American Regional Materials