Main Debates

  • Are resources in the protection of refugees shared equally?
  • Should each region shoulder its burden in the protection of refugees?
  • In the context of the changing nature of forced displacement, who should have an entitlement to cross an international border and seek asylum?

Main Points

  • Disparities between the South and the North
  • The South-North debate

Since its beginnings the modern refugee regime has been progressively implemented, becoming increasingly more operational and international in scope. Today the regime faces a period of transition, forced to adapt to increasing refugee flows and enhanced restrictions among its member states.



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  2. B. S. Chimni, ‘The Geopolitics of Refugee Studies: A View from the South’, Journal of Refugee Studies, vol. 11, no. 4 (1998), pp. 350–374.
  3. B. Rutinwa, ‘Presence of Refugees: Impact on Local Governance and Administration’, The African, 16 July 2004, p. 10.
  4. A. Suhrke, ‘Burden-Sharing During Refugee Emergencies: The Logic of Collective versus National Action’, Journal of Refugee Studies, vol. 11, no. 4 (1998), pp. 396–415.
  5. UNHCR, ‘Good governance and the evolution of the international refugee regime’, New Issues in Refugee Research, Working Paper No. 54.


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  2. A. Betts, ‘The migration industry in global migration governance’ in T. Gammeltoft-Hansen and N. Nyberg Sorensen (eds), The Migration Industry and the Commercialization of International Migration, (London: Routledge, 2012).
  3. A. Betts, Survival Migration: Failed Governance and the Crisis of Displacement, (New York: Cornell University Press, 2013).
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  5. A. Betts, ‘International Cooperation and Targeting Development Assistance for Refugees Solution: Lessons from the 1980’, New Issues in Refugees Research, Working Paper No. 107, 2004.
  6. J. Hyndman, ‘Refugee Self-Management and the Question of Governance’, Refuge, vol. 16, no. 2 (1997), pp. 16–22.
  7. J. Milner, ‘Sharing the Security Burden: Towards the Convergence of Refugee Protection and State Security’, Working Paper Series No. 4, (Oxford: University of Oxford, May 2000).
  8. O. Sadako, ‘Solidarity and Nation Building: The Case of Refugees’, East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights, vol. 5, no.1 (1998).