Main Debates

  • Has the OAU Refugee Convention significantly expanded the protection against refoulement?
  • Does rejection at the frontier constitute refoulement?

Main Points

  • Safe third country rule
  • First country of asylum rule


  1. Abdi and another v. Minister of Home Affairs and others, 2011(3) SA 37(SCA).



  1. B. Rutinwa, ‘The end of asylum? The changing nature of refugee policies in Africa’, New Issues in Refugee Research, Working paper No. 5, 10 May 1999, pp. 5-6.
  2. M. Sharpe, ‘The 1969 African Refugee Convention: Innovations, Misconceptions, and Omissions’ McGill Law Journal, vol. 58, no. 1 (2012), pp. 11-12.
  3. G. Okoth-Obbo, ‘Thirty Years on: A Legal Review of the 1969 OAU Refugee Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa’ Refugee Survey Quarterly, vol. 20,no. 1 (2001), pp. 118-122.


  1. F. Khan, ‘The principle of non-refoulement’ in F. Khan and T. Schreier (eds), Refugee Law in South Africa, (Cape Town: Juta, 2014), pp. 3-19.
  2. O. Bueno, ‘Perspectives on Refoulement in Africa’, Canadian Council for Refugee Conference, Toronto, June 17, 2006.