Main Debates

  • Should asylum seekers have a choice?
  • Are states free to delegate the task of refugee protection to other states?
  • Under what conditions, should a state be entitled to return/send an asylum seeker to another state (if any at all)?

Main Points

  • Content of effective protection

The need to specify the grounds for removal

  • To the asylum seeker
  • To the authorities of the destination state



  1. S. Kneebone, ‘The Legal and Ethical Implications of Extraterritorial Processing of Asylum-Seekers: The “Safe Third Country’ Concept”, in J. McAdam (ed.), Forced Migration, Human Rights and Security (Portland Oregon: Hart Publishing, 2008).

Editor’s Note

See Section VI.2.3 for analyses of European jurisprudence on access to procedures.

 II.2.3	Access to ProceduresII.2.3 Access to Procedures

 II.2.3.1 Protection Elsewhere (First Country of Asylum and Safe Third Country)II.2.3.1 Protection Elsewhere (First Country of Asylum and Safe Third Country)

UNHCR DocumentsUNHCR Documents