1. J. Hathaway, ‘A Reconsideration of the Underlying Premise of Refugee Law’, Harvard International Law Journal, vol. 31, no. 1 (Spring 1990), pp. 129–147.
  2. G. Loescher, ‘The Origins of the International Refugee Regime’, in 'Beyond Charity: International Co-operation and the Global Refugee Crisis', (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), pp. 32–55.
  3. A. Suhrke, ‘Refugees and Asylum in the Muslim World’, in R. Cohen (ed.), The Cambridge Survey of World Migration (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), pp. 457–460.


  1. L. Holborn, ‘The Legal Status of Political Refugees, 1920–1938’, American Journal of International Law, vol. 32, no. 4 (October 1938), pp. 680–703.
  2. M. Marrus, The Unwanted. European Refugees in the Twentieth Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985).

Editor’s Note

Note the three phases of the modern international refugee regime:

  1. The first phase of collective recognition of refugees, which goes up until the II World War.
  2. The second phase of transition, which occurs during and shortly after the II World War.
  3. The third phase of individual recognition and other forms of protection, which begins with the establishment of UNHCR and entry into force of the 1951 Convention, continuing to the present.

 I.2.1	The Evolution of the International Refugee Regime I.2.1 The Evolution of the International Refugee Regime